Neurosurgery Dr. Stoforou



Craniotomy is the surgical procedure in which a part of the bone scull is removed to allow the surgeon to have access to the brain.


Special surgical apparatus are used to remove the part of the bone called the bone flap. The bone flap is temporarily removed until the surgery is completed and is then repositioned with the use of special titanium plates.

Craniotomy and neuronavigation MIS as applicable

In many cases, the use of Neuronavigation is compulsory for a more accurate identification of the damaged area to be removed. Computer – aided imaging (MRI scan or CT scan) is used by the neurosurgeon, so as to identify the exact location of the tumor. In case any of these imaging or localization procedures are used during a craniotomy operation, the craniotomy procedure is classified as stereotactic.

Neuronavigation enables us to have a three-dimensional view, for instance, of a brain tumor, and of course aids greatly, within a millimeter accuracy frame, to avoid damaging any healthy tissues and causing this way a possible iatrogenic damage.

Other uses of Neuronavigation are:

  • stereotactic biopsy of the brain (a needle is directed into a pathological part of the brain and a specimen of tissue is taken for biopsy (histopathological examination under a microscope).
  • stereotactic aspiration (removal of fluid from an abscess, hematoma, or cyst).

Types of craniotomy and neuronavigation

There are several types of craniotomy depending on the location of the lesion, for instance:

  • Classical craniotomy
  • Endoscopic craniotomy
  • Key hole craniotomy
  • Posterior sigmoid key hole craniotomy
  • Translabyrinth craniotomy
  • Hypo-occipital craniotomy

Endoscopic craniotomy is another type of craniotomy which involves inserting an endoscopic camera into the brain through a small incision in the scalp. It is usually used for intraventricular tumors or for endoscopic third ventriculostomy in cases of hydrocephalus.


Craniectomy is a similar procedure involving the permanent removal of a part of the skull. This is usually performed where there is swelling of the brain before or after a brain surgery and in cases of infection.


More information about: Neuronavigation robotic neurosurgery MIS.